Philip Lowe was born in Leeds in 1947. He read Politics, Philosophy and Economics at St John's College, Oxford and has an M.Sc. from London Business School. Following a period in manufacturing industry, he joined the European Commission in 1973, and held a range of senior posts as Chef de Cabinet and Director in the fields of regional development, agriculture, transport and administration, before becoming Director-General of the Development DG in 1997. From September 2002 he was Director-General of the European Commission’ Competition DG until he became Director-General of the Energy DG in February 2010. He retired from the European Commission from 1st January 2014. From 2013 to 2016, he was a non-executive director of the UK Competition and Markets Authority and since 2016, Executive Chair of the World Energy Council’s Energy Trilemma Flagship Study Programme. From 2010, he has been Chair of the Florence University Institute Competition Law Workshop. Philip Lowe was knighted KCMG in 2014.