As of 2014, 1.05 billion, predominantly in low/low-middle income countries, still did not have electricity access, while 3.04 billion people did not have access to clean fuels for cooking. The SEforALL objective of ensuring universal access to modern energy for all by 2030 requires an annual electrification access rate of 0.83% and clean fuels rate of 2.66% - currently, we are at 0.27% electrification and 0.46% clean fuels. Regionally, the greatest challenges are in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In Asia, it is clean cooking. In Sub-Saharan Africa, it is electrification and clean cooking.
Despite advancements in technologies, business models, and new pools of finance, countries are not embracing off grid solutions quickly or systematically enough. Those that do are making swift progress in reducing energy poverty and closing the energy access gap cleanly and resiliently – but none are doing enough, yet.
- Countries above $15,000 per capita GDP all have 100% electrification, but in the past 25 years, we’ve seen that increasing access is possible without income playing a big role.
- Afghanistan had a 1% electrification rate in 2000, 50% in 2010 and about 90% in 2014. This has been primarily powered by off-grid energy solutions.
- Sub-Saharan Africa saw electrification take off after the year 2000, when even small countries started taking major strides. However, while the electrified population increased by 19 million a year in 2012-14, the population grew even faster at 25 million per year, setting back progress in countries such as: The Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia and Tanzania.
- Globally, electricity access in urban areas generally advanced faster than in rural areas. However, in Sub-Saharan Africa growth in electrification couldn’t keep ahead of urban or rural population growth over 2012-14.
Progress in achieving access to clean cooking is five times lower than the rate that’s needed to reach our goal. But those countries that prioritize closing the clean cooking gap and who pursue policies to do so, can and do see rapid progress
- Countries above a per capita income of over $15,000 have over 90% population with access to clean fuel (except Slovenia). However, some countries in Latin America, the Middle East and East Asia are close to 90% access without being close to $15,000 per capita GDP.
- Two of the most impressive countries are Indonesia and Maldives, each providing access to 50% of their populations over 2000-14. Over the same period, Angola, Peru and Vietnam were also able to increase access by 20%.
- In 2007, Indonesia introduced a kerosene to LPG conversion program, which converted 56 million households and microbusinesses by 2014.Over this same period, Indonesia’s GDP per capita also increased by about 73%.